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2016-12-23 19:31:40      来源:紫荆湖北新闻网 特约通讯员 刘发生 刘宇峰       分享:

雄鸡报晓新春到    糍粑腊肉香深山
 
年味正浓苗岭山寨
 
——革命老区秀山苗岭山寨过年的记忆
 
(本刊讯 特约通讯员刘发生、刘宇峰报导)我的家乡在革命老区西部武陵山区深处的秀山苗岭山寨,渝东南边陲,是和湖南、贵州接壤的鸡鸣三省地。这里山川秀丽,物产丰富;民风淳朴,鸟语花香,素有小成都平原美称。清光绪三十三年(西元1907年),进士出身的秀山知县张广楠,为县署大门题对联一付:此邦亦号成都,四方云山开沃野;胜地旧名高秀,一江春水绕边城。
离开家乡数载,最难以忘怀的是“雄鸡报晓新春到,糍粑腊肉香深山”那种世外桃源般的田园牧歌生活。
在2017鸡年来临之际,拾遗久违的乡音乡情、亲情友情,秀山苗岭山寨过年散记,尤在眼前……
杀年猪迎新年


辛勤一年的山民杀年猪,过新年。

我母亲的家乡,在秀山土家族苗族自治县孝溪乡的苗岭山寨,从年头开始,村寨里的每户人家都要养几头猪,以备年末杀猪祭奠神灵。
小时在家里,常听外公外婆和村里的老人们摆古:相传神农氏把野猪驯化成了家猪,为感恩大自然,回报神灵,特地夜观天象,选定黄道吉日,杀猪祭神。有了希望,有了期待,便世世相传。
“腊月二十六,好日子!”寨子里年过八旬的王大爷,翻出那早已经泛黄的老黄历,选定了吉日,再请来十里八村有好手艺的杀猪匠。
起个大早,烧了满满一锅开水。
一声吆喝,早已准备好的左邻右舍,三亲六戚齐上阵。
七八个青壮劳动力就和猪拉开了架势,好不容易把猪放倒在地,王三叔却被撂了一猪蹄,跑到街坎边捂着小腿青叫唤:“嗨哟,看我等哈不吃你肉!”乐得大夥一阵爽朗的笑。
杀了年猪的寨子里, 团邻老少围在一起, 吃着锅子里炖上的热腾腾的大快猪肉,喝着自家酿的糯米酒, 还有喷香的鼎罐饭,青翠的时鲜疏菜,痛快!
眼看已近晌午,满公李顺河走到院坝吼了一嗓子:“杀猪匠,酒喝好了撒,我家猪可等不及了!”
“来啦来啦!”杀猪匠提起家什乐呵呵地去了。

糯米打糍粑


浓郁的乡风亲情,让回家过年的大学生刘宇峰,也忍不住去过把“打糍粑”瘾!

“嗨哟,嗨哟.....”,随着轻快的节奏,两个身强力壮的大汉,手里的打棒落在石槽里通通作响,石槽里装的是煮熟的糯米,香气被打得甘醇浓烈,溢满了院落。
打糍粑也是寨里的一景。
做法也很讲究,打糍粑最好是用珍珠圆玉润“大糯米”,要装在专用的木桶里,柴火慢慢烧上两小时, 糯米膨胀後,粒粒饱满,而深山中的柴又吸收了大自然的灵气,与木桶的纯味漫漫融合,使得煮出的糯米带着一股奇异的香味。
而我们小孩子们早就等不及了,围在木桶边直流口水,待熟後,抓一把在小手里,香嘭嘭的,烫得直吹气。
把糯米装在石槽里,打出粘性,寨民们在手上抹了桐油,把偌大一个糯米团,捏成一个个柑橘般大小,用两块木板用力一夹,就成了圆润喷香的糍粑。
圆圆润润好似这日子红红火火,圆圆满满。

煨腊肉煮汤锅

当炊烟被山风吹得四面散开时,寨子里杀了年猪的老老少少们,就聚在了一起,围在一口大锅边,锅里炖着腊排骨,腊香肠,猪头肉,嘴里谈论着刚刚的过去的这一年里,兄弟之情,婆媳之爱,就像这一锅子炖肉,有滋有味。
坎上的顺河满叔,给我们摆起进山打野猪的事情,又激动得猛喝了一口。
“那才是悬,我才进野猪岭,就看到离我10几米远的灌木丛里,壮得像头小牛的野猪,嘻嘻,正趴在那晒太阳哩,我瞄准就是一枪,哪想却打在野猪屁股上,它发疯的朝我冲过来!”
“怎麽样,後来怎麽样!”大家争着问。
“怎麽样?一定是尿裤子了吧?”三公笑得手直颤。
“你几个老人家是不晓得哦,我看旁边有棵不小的树,赶忙爬上去,树都差点被野猪拱翻了,後来,进山的人赶上来一起才把野猪赶跑了。”满叔至今还心有余悸。

摆香案燃红烛


秀山苗岭山寨红色喜烛,给人们带来吉祥。

在秀山苗岭山寨,许多人家信奉万物有灵,对祖先至虔至诚,摆香案、燃红烛是多少不得的。
逢年过节,尤其是过年三十夜,要摆香案、燃红烛,真诚祭祀,在老一辈人的心中,燃年烛是一件很慎重的事。
大年三十吃年夜饭前,家里男主人会点上年烛,虔诚地插在自家堂屋神龛两侧,敬奉祖先,表示对祖先的尊崇。
燃点年烛,除了有寄托对已逝祖先的追思外,还有祈求神灵保佑的意思。
秀山年烛为传统工艺,多为手工制作。

世外桃源般苗岭山寨老屋,炊烟袅袅,梦如仙境。

一般用桐油作原料,紫草作染料(现改用朱红颜料),将灯草缠在竹棍上作烛芯,然後浇塑成型。
年烛为红色,其大小、重量不等,有的重达20至30斤,能燃几天几夜不灭。带花型的年烛叫“花烛”,以前是专为殷实人家做的,制作工艺十分考究,要经过熔化、成型、冷却、翻倒、染色、涂金粉、妆点成型等工序,再帖上诸如“财源滚滚”、“龙凤呈祥”等吉祥话,或饰以各种纹案,很是奇特好看。
因花型不同,年烛也有不同“分工”:祭祀时用“九品烛”;修房造屋用“喜烛”;祝寿用“寿烛”。
结婚用的“龙凤花烛”最具特色:呈圆锥形,上大下小,朱红底色蜡柱上缠绕栩栩如生的龙凤图案,并饰以各色花朵云团,隐喻龙凤呈祥、夫妻恩爱。

 
世外桃源般苗岭山寨老屋,炊烟袅袅,梦如仙境。




隔壁的梦仙阿姐,是山寨勤奋的养猪专业户。

亲爱的朋友们,在神奇温情的秀山苗岭山寨里,有香气扑鼻的炖腊肉,静静的引诱着你;有热情似火的少数民族,他们银装素裹,跳起美丽的土家摆手舞、苗族花灯戏迎接你;有历史悠远的传统民风,它们漫漫沉淀,融成一股甘泉,沐浴着你,让心此刻沉下去,慢慢品味,不醉不归!


英文版:

 The cock Spring Festival cake fragrant bacon mountains
Taste is strong a copycat
- revolutionary new memory by copycat Xiushan
(this print dispatch special correspondent Liu Fasheng, Liu Yufeng reports) in my hometown in the old revolutionary base areas west of Wuling area in the southeast of Chongqing Xiushan a copycat, border, border and Hunan, Guizhou is the cock in the three provinces to. In this beautiful scenery, rich products; simple folk, known as the small Chengdu plain name birds'twitter and fragrance of flowers. Thirty-three years of the Qing Dynasty (1907 AD), the origin of the Xiushan County Magistrate Zhang Guangnan, County Department of the door problem: this state also a pair of antithetical couplet, Chengdu, four open Woye old Yunshan resort; high river flows around the town show.
Leave home for several years, the most unforgettable is the cock Spring Festival, glutinous rice fragrant bacon mountains "kind of pastoral life like a land of idyllic beauty.
In the dawn of 2017 year, returning to the hometown accent, a family friendship, a new year in Xiushan copycat, especially in the eyes......
Kill the swine to welcome the new year
My mother's home in Xi Xiang, Xiushan Tujia and Miao Autonomous County of filial piety from the beginning of the year, a copycat, every household in the village to raise a few pigs, to prepare for the end of a sacred deities.
Hours at home, often listen to Grandpa grandmother and village elders: the ancient legend Shennong put into wild boar domesticated pigs, to appreciate the nature, return to the gods, especially the concept of night sky, selected a lucky day, pig blood. With hope, look forward to, then the world's legend.
"The twelfth lunar month twenty-six, good day!" the stockade in eight year old Uncle Wang, pulls out that already the Yellow almanac, select auspicious days, then invited ten in eight villages have good craft butcher carpenter.
Get up early, burned a pot full of boiling water.
A yell, already prepared three pro six next door neighbours, Qi Qi battle.
Seven or eight of the young labor force and pig opened posture, finally put the pig down to the ground, but Wang Sanshu was down a pit to run pig's trotters, clutching the green leg call: "Yo, I do not eat meat you ha!" was a large group of hearty laughter.
Kill the pig in the stockade, group and neighbor Wai together, eating hot pot stew in the fast pork, drinking home brewed rice wine, and delicious pot meal, fresh green vegetables, happy!
At nearly noon, Li Shunhe went to the courtyard full of shout a voice: "pig carpenter, drink good Samuel, my pig can't wait!"
"Coming!" butcher carpenter filed cheerfully to the furniture.
Steamed glutinous rice cake
"Yo Ho, yo.....", with a brisk pace, two robust and strong man, the hands of the stick fell on the stone trough. All were in the stone groove is filled with cooked glutinous rice, aroma was mellow thick, overflowing the courtyard.
A scene is in the village of lily.
It is also very important, lily is the best "zhenzhuyuan Yurun glutinous rice, should be installed in special barrels in firewood slowly burned for two hours, glutinous rice after expansion, plump, and the mountains in the wood and absorb the nimbus of the nature, and the long barrel pure fusion, make make glutinous rice with a strange smell.
Our children had to wait in a barrel, around the DC side to be cooked, slobber, grab a hand in there, incense pounding straight, hot air blowing.
The rice is installed in the groove in the stone, hit sticky, villagers with tung oil in the hand, put a huge glutinous rice, squeezed into a citrus size, with two boards a clip, a mellow delicious cake.
Round Runrun is like this day is booming, festive.
Simmer bacon cooking pot
When the smoke is blown by wind spread, the stockade in kill swine old and young alike, they together around a pot in pot stew with wax, wax ribs, sausage, PigHead meat, mouth talking past this year just, brothers, old love, like a pot of stew, flavor.
On the ridge along the river with uncle, give us a swing up into the mountains wild boar thing, and drank a cup of excitement.
"That is hanging, I just enter the boar ridge, saw 10 meters away from me in the bushes, hee hee is like a calf, wild boar, lying in the sun. I aim, is a gun, which was to play in wild ass, it crazy rushed toward me!"
"What, then what do you ask for!".
"How? Must be in his pants?" Three laugh succeeded straight.
"You don't know a few old man: Oh, I see there is a big tree beside, quickly climb the tree was almost wild boar arch over, then, into the mountain people to catch up with the boar away." Full - still a lingering fear.
Put incense burning candle
A copycat many people in Xiushan, animist, ancestral to Qian Zhicheng, Xiangan, burning the candle put what is not.
On holidays, especially for thirty nights, put incense, burning the candle, sincere worship, in the old heart, burning candle years is a very serious thing.
On the thirty to eat big meals, home host will point Year candle, reverently inserted in their own room on both sides of the shrine, ancestor worship, ancestor worship said.
Light years apart from the candle, placed on the deceased ancestor Memorial, and pray to the gods to bless you.
Xiushan Year candle for the traditional craft, making for manual.
General with tung oil as raw material, dye Lithospermum (now to Zhu Hong, will rush for pigment) wrapped in bamboo sticks wick, then pouring molding.
Red candle for years, its size, weight, some weighing 20 to 30 pounds, can burn for several days and nights

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